The normal and pathological mechanics of the joints are examined. Ergonomics in the workplace, home and during activities of daily living is explored. The biomechanics of cycling, gait, footwear, foot orthotics, carrying a backpack and the functional activities of throwing and kicking are presented with emphasis on incorrect technique and its relation to pathological conditions.
Common neurological disorders are presented with particular emphasis on conditions frequently seen by chiropractors. The skills required to apply the findings of a neurological examination and correlate clinical neurological findings with other diagnostic data are developed. Emphasis is placed on clinical pattern recognition, aetiology, signs, symptoms and differential diagnosis.
An overview of advanced clinical disorders of the body systems is presented. Emphasis is placed on the aetiology, signs and symptoms, differential diagnosis and treatment of disorders of the cardiovascular, genitourinary, respiratory, gastrointestinal, endocrine, skin, ears, eyes, nose and throat, and immune systems that may confront the chiropractic practitioner.
The background necessary to identify and respond to psychological problems effectively is provided. The full spectrum of normal and abnormal behaviours is discussed with a specific focus on the syndromes most commonly seen in chiropractic practice. The use of clinical observation, systematic inquiry and evaluation to develop a plan of management for these conditions within the context of a chiropractic practice is emphasized.
Prerequisite: A current certification in basic first aid and CPR with AED. The first response diagnosis of emergency situations such as head and spinal injuries, stroke, shock, cardiac arrest, respiratory distress, burns, heat and cold injuries, soft tissue and bone trauma, diabetic emergencies, poisoning and emergency child birth are presented. Emphasis is placed on the assessment of emergency situations, the triaging of injuries and the provision of appropriate first aid in an effort to preserve life, prevent further injury and promote recovery.
The diagnosis and management of selected conditions affecting infants and preschool children are presented, including disorders of birth, child development, the neuromusculoskeletal system, orthopaedics, infectious diseases and common malignancies. Distinguishing between those conditions that require referral and those that are amenable to chiropractic care is emphasized. Special emphasis is placed on prevention and correction of structural problems.
Conditions of the female reproductive system and standard diagnostic gynaecologic procedures are discussed. Emphasis is placed on the differential diagnosis of functional and organic causes of gynaecologic signs and symptoms, and on the treatment of those gynaecological conditions amenable to chiropractic care. Prenatal care, childbirth and postpartum care are discussed with an emphasis on chiropractic management.
Conditions affecting older persons are introduced including the "I"s of geriatric care (intellectual impairment, immobility, instability, iatrogenic drug reactions, incontinence and social isolation). History taking, diagnostic procedures and therapeutic interventions for chiropractic care of the older patient are presented. The importance of an interdisciplinary approach and healthful lifestyle strategies that culminate in healthy aging are emphasized.
Utilizing a case based approach, learning from across the program is integrated as clinical reasoning skills are applied to reach a diagnosis and formulate a plan of management specific to that patient's presentation. Evidence based care within a biopsychosocial model is emphasized. Learning is optimized by guest lecturer and expert panel presentations.
The modern principles of patient centered chiropractic care in the evolving healthcare environment are examined. Relevant topics pertaining to professional identity, jurisprudence and ethics are explored. Learning is applied within the context of social theory, social contract and social closure. The concepts of entrepreneurship are applied.
Emphasis is placed on proficiency in conducting a comprehensive examination of the spine, pelvis, extremities and rib articulations. New adjustive procedures and other treatment options such as manual and instrument assisted soft tissue techniques and mobilization are introduced while adjustive procedures taught in the previous two years are reinforced. The correlation of analysis with treatment protocol is emphasized.
The basic physics, physiological principles, indications and contraindications, and appropriate applications of therapeutic modalities, which include electrotherapy, hydrotherapy, mechanotherapy, phototherapy, thermotherapy, and cryotherapy are presented.
Advanced concepts surrounding prescription of active therapeutics as part of a comprehensive chiropractic treatment plan, and the contemporary use of exercise for the rehabilitation of unique populations as part of a chiropractic treatment plan are explored. Concepts from Rehabilitation I and II are expanded upon and solidified through a 2 hour hands-on laboratory component.
The aetiology, pathology, signs and symptoms, radiographic features, and management of major rheumatic diseases are presented as they relate to chiropractic practice. Emphasis on spinal degenerative joint disease and inflammatory conditions leads to the development of a differential diagnosis and pertinent therapeutic scenarios. Clinical judgment in ordering and interpreting appropriate imaging studies, a review of the clinical and physiological characteristics related to rheumatologic conditions and their prognoses, orthopaedic examination procedures, interdisciplinary referral and case management are discussed. Fundamentals of radiographic report writing are presented and applied to comprehensive radiographic differential diagnoses. Comprehensive imaging differential diagnoses challenge students to interpret imaging of any possible disease category, as indicated by clinical symptomatology.
The production of radiographs of good diagnostic quality with minimum patient exposure is emphasized, including patient positioning, calculation of proper technique factors, equipment operation and operator protection. Simulated radiographic equipment and phantom exposures are used. The biological effects of radiation are emphasised, along with its application to the diagnostic radiographic process relating to the protection of the patient, the operator and the general public, and to the rules and regulations of the Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care and the Ministry of Labour.
Soft tissue radiology presents the range of normal appearances of chest and abdominal radiographs, patterns of abnormal disease processes in these regions and indications for prompt referral. The indications for contrast studies and special imaging procedures for the chest and abdomen are reviewed.
Systemic pathology, including aetiology, pathogenesis, morphology and microscopic features of major diseases and neoplasms involving different body organs are provided. Problems and clinical case scenarios are included to facilitate understanding and correlating the pathology with clinical presentation.
The use of laboratory findings in clinical decision making in health and common disease states is demonstrated and discussed. Problem solving exercises are undertaken with data from the biochemistry, immunology and haematology laboratories.
The clinical skills to perform a comprehensive patient assessment and lifestyle management program are developed. Communication skills for collaboration with medical practitioners to obtain objective measurements (e.g., blood and urine tests, bone mineral density tests, PAP smears, PSA tests, mammograms, colonoscopies) important to making evidence informed recommendations regarding nutrition, exercise and supplementation are discussed.
Identification of a faculty research supervisor, completion of Research Ethics Board (REB) approval, as necessary, and a written report of the research of sufficient quality for submission for publication are required. The supervisor and course coordinator provide support with proposal creation, research design and analysis. Online resources are available.
Identification of a faculty project of interest, an agreement signed with the faculty investigator regarding tasks to be performed, and registration with the Research Administrator are required. Students will receive a certificate of appreciation for this course when their work has been completed. If an original student project emerges from a faculty project, students can enrol in RMO 3302 to receive credit for their original project under the conditions associated with that elective.